Waste to Energy Power Plants


VIRIDIS provides solutions that convert waste into valuable energy in a reliable, environmentally safe and easy-to implement way. Waste-to-energy technology is rapidly evolving and requires the most up-to-date energy from waste products for optimal performance.

Related image

 

Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies consist of any waste treatment process that creates energy in the form of electricity, heat or transport fuels (e.g. diesel) from a waste source.

These technologies can be applied to several types of waste: from the semi-solid (e.g. thickened sludge from effluent treatment plants) to liquid (e.g. domestic sewage) and gaseous (e.g. refinery gases) waste. However, the most common application by far is processing the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The current most known WtE technology for MSW processing is incineration in a combined heat and power (CHP) plant.

 

 

Working Mechanisms

Related image

The most common and popular method for waste to energy generation is incineration. Incineration is a process that involves the conversion of waste to energy. Wastes are possible to be utilize to be an alternative energy source. This process able to recover energy and reduce waste volume. The heat energy generated from combustion of waste can be used as fuel for power plants. Wastes are combusted in incinerator boiler and generated hot steam which can turn steam turbine and drive an electricity generator. The thermal energy produces from the combustion is first converted into kinetic energy and subsequently electrical energy.

There are a number of other new and emerging technologies that are able to produce energy from waste and other fuels without direct combustion. Many of these technologies have the potential to produce more electric power from the same amount of fuel than would be possible by direct combustion. This is mainly due to the separation of corrosive components (ash) from the converted fuel, thereby allowing higher combustion temperatures in e.g. boilers, gas turbines, internal combustion engines, fuel cells. Some are able to efficiently convert the energy into liquid or gaseous fuels.

 

 

 

Thermal technologies

  • Gasification

Gasification is another developing process employed for waste to energy generation. Gasification converts carbonaceous substances into carbon dioxide, carbon mono oxide and some amount of hydrogen. This process like incineration employs high temperatures to obtain results, however the major difference is that combustion does not occur over her. Steam and/or oxygen is also used in this procedure where usually fossil fuels or organic substances are used. The gas that is produced from the whole procedure is called Synthesis gas and is considered as a good means of alternate energy. Syngas is there after used for heat and electricity production primarily among other uses.

  • Thermal depolymerization

Depolymerization uses thermal decomposition where in the presence of water, the organic compounds are heated at high temperatures and produces synthetic crude oil, which can be further refined. This process of thermal decomposition is called Hydrous Pyrolysis in scientific terms.

The process without the use of oxygen is called Pyrolysis. Derived from greek it is literally the synthesis of the terms, Fire and Separating. The process usually takes plastic and bio-mass as their primary ingredients. The rest works as a thermo chemical decomposition. This is again conducted at high temperatures and involves parallel changes of the chemical composition and physics.

  • Pyrolysis

This produces combustible tar/biooil and chars. Pyrolysis is another waste to energy process, used majorly in industrial processes. Pyrolysis is just like Hydrous pyrolysis, without the use of oxygen. Pyrolysis employs agricultural waste or organic waste from industries.

  • Plasma arc gasification or plasma gasification process (PGP)

As the name suggests, plasma technologies produces rich syngas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide usable for fuel cells. A plasma torch is used to ionize gas and there after obtain synthesis gas. The process generates electricity while compressing the waste.

Non-thermal technologies

  • Anaerobic digestion/ Fermentation production

Anaerobic digestion is a slow process. Here in micro organisms are used to destroy the biodegradable content. No oxygen is present during this procedure. It is used both domestically and even on a commercial level to tap the release of energy during the process and use it. Anaerobic technologies are seen as good agents to reduce the green house gases from the atmosphere and also as a worthy replacement of fossil fuels. The process works as a boon for developing countries for creating low energies for cooking and lighting in homes.

 

Advantages

  • Clean and renewable energy
  • Low carbon emission
  • Low environmental impact than any other form of energy
  • Reduce landfill volume